Every year, some people miss Eid Prayer due to travel, illness, or other reasons. Whether or not they can make up the missed Eid Prayer is something scholars have differed on since the time of the Companions of the Prophet Muhammad. The first view is that Eid Prayer cannot be made up once missed. The second view is that it can, even by a single individual praying alone.
Due to bans on public gatherings in many regions because of the Novel Coronavirus, the issue of ‘missing’ Eid Prayer, and the conditions for its validity, have become a public issue. In summary, there are four views held by respected Muslim scholars on what to do:
- There will be no Eid Prayer in regions which prohibited large public gatherings. Muslims should celebrate the day of Eid but without the Eid Prayer this year. If you want you can pray two or four units [rakʿahs] in the morning. This can be done collectively or individually, but it will not be considered an Eid Prayer, it is the recommended Ḍuḥā prayer which can be performed on any day of the year.
- Small groups of people should gather and perform the Eid Prayer, just like the Friday [Jumuʿah] Prayer if there are at least four adult males and one of them knows how to properly perform the prayer and sermon. Otherwise, follow view #1.
- Eid Prayer should be performed by every individual who misses it, as two units, with the additional takbīrs [saying Allāhu Akbar] as normally done in Eid Prayer. No khutbah is required.
- The same as #3 but giving a sermon [khutbah] after the prayer is recommended.
All these views are held by qualified and respected scholars. Each individual or family should follow the one that is advocated by the scholar or institution they trust the most. There should be no argumentation or conflict between Muslims who choose to follow one view over another, since the Prophet did not clearly specify the conditions for Friday Prayer or Eid Prayer, so the issue has room for legitimate disagreement.
The Messenger of Allah did say regarding Eid, “Every nation has its day of celebration and this is our day of celebration.” Muslims should observe the day of Eid by taking a bath, wearing their best clothing, applying fragrance, glorifying Allah, connecting with family, and exhibiting happiness throughout the day. Even if we are unable to have large physical gatherings the day can still be celebrated and joyous.
The first view: This view is held by scholars of the Ḥanafī school who said that the Eid Prayer is like Friday Prayer in that it requires a congregation and public access where others can join. If these requirements are not met, there will be no Eid Prayer. See Ash-Shaybānī, Kitāb Al-Aṣl 1:320; Al-Kāsānī, Badāʿi al-ṣanā’iʿ, 1:275; Ibn al-Humām, Fatḥ al-qadīr, 2:29. If Eid prayer is missed, it cannot be made up. The Prophet never performed a Jumuʿah or Eid prayer alone or with just one or two people. Instead, you can pray the Ḍuḥā prayer. See Ibn ʿĀbidīn, Radd Ul-Muḥtār, 2:500-501. Also see Fatāwā Usmānī 1:523 where Shaykh Taqī Usmānī argues that the condition of public access remains in place in private homes, small shops, and the like, even in majority non-Muslims countries.
The second view: This view is held by scholars of the Ḥanafī school who explain that the condition of ‘public access’ does not apply in our circumstances. Therefore, any gathering that can perform a Jumuʿah Prayer should perform the Eid Prayer as well. See Fatāwā Usmānī 1:523 for a detailed discussion of this point. This is the view I plan to follow.
The third and fourth view: This view was held by the Shāfiʿī, Mālikī, and Ḥanbalī schools who considered Eid Prayer more like an extra prayer rather than the Friday Prayer. See An-Nawawī, Rawḍat Uṭ-Ṭālibīn, 1:578; Mawāhib Al-Jalīl li Sharh Mukhtaṣar Al-Khalīl 2:581; Al-Mughnī 3:284.
 Ṣaḥīḥ Al-Bukhārī